Women at Work:
A Cross-Cultural Comparison
Research gathered during the
1998 Fulbright-Hays Professional Development Seminar in Turkey
and independent research.
Author: Dianne Lynn Chidester, M.A.
Department of Social Behavior
University of South Dakota
"Women do two-thirds of the worlds work,
receive 10 percent of the worlds income
and own 1 percent of the means of production."
This was the informal slogan of the Decade of Women which was started by the United Nations as the International Womens Year in 1975 and, because of overwhelming demands, became 10 years long. [Ward, March C., A World Full of Women. CN: Allyn & Bacon. 1999:268].
The following questions are suggestions for the teacher to stimulate discussion as to what constitutes work and what is womens work.
What kinds of work do women do?
Students can discuss the types of jobs done by women they know.
Is work only done outside of the home?
What constitutes work?
Is work only what is paid for?
Students discuss whether or not work done in the home is really work.
Do only Western women work?
Is collecting water work? (Some women see collecting water as a part of their time to associate with other women.)
Is raising children work?
Is teaching children the beliefs of the religion and culture work?
Should womens work be limited by law or custom?
Does work only produce something one can see or touch?
How do men describe womens work?
Why has National Take Your Daughter to Work Day become important in the United States?
What do you (the students) want to be when you grow up? Should being female effect your choice of career?
The students should ask women of their families and friends about what they think is work and how they describe work. The students should discuss the similarities and differences among the answers.
Option: Students should interview women from other cultural backgrounds and find out what constitutes work.
Option: Students should choose a culture and research the type of work performed by women in the selected culture and compare this to their culture.
A report on womens issues, history and statistics with internet sources and bibliography is available from Tyler Junior College.
An annotated series of slides on Women at Work in Turkey is available from Dr. M. Khosrowshahi at Tyler Junior College, Tyler, Texas.
WOMEN IN TURKEY:
AN INTRODUCTORY REPORT
Dianne Lynn Chidester, M.A., Anthropology
Report in association with information gathered during the
1998 Fulbright-Hays Professional Development Seminar in Turkey
As throughout the world, women in Turkey are struggling for equality, recognition, and fairness in all aspects of life. This report is an overview of some of the issues, history, and statistics concerning women in Turkey. The issues section reports some newsworthy information and reports of conversations with some women in Turkey. The history section highlights women in history and womens history in Turkey. The statistics section presents an overview of data collected in areas affecting womens lives. The bibliography suggests further reading and web sites which will connect the reader to sites about Turkish women and the Middle East.
Ward, in her book A World Full of Women [1999:17-18], lists four different types of work performed by humans: "production, reproduction, status enhancement, and morale building" [1999:11]. "...work as production generates goods, money, wages, or income of some kind" and is generally associated with men [1999:11]. The work of reproduction means "having babies and raising them" and is associated with women and is undervalued [1999:11]. Status enhancement work "promote prestige and social worth--however they are defined," can may enhance the status of the husband or family, and, although important work, is largely invisible [1999:12]. Work as morale building involves "caring, repairing, and integration" [1999:12]. These tasks usually fall within the womens realm of work. Women in Turkey work hard for recognition of their labor. Are they succeeding? According to White, the piecework and handicrafts produced by Turkish women are perceived as being "part of their gendered domesticity, rather than as productive work under capitalist conditions" [White, 1994:5]. Even though surveys report that Turkish women work on production an average of twenty-two hours a week, "...none of the women took their work seriously or considered themselves as working" [Cinar 1989:15]. According to the Turkish State Institute of Statistics , unpaid family workers 96% of the urban working population) are 34% female.
When studying about women in the Middle East, the student must be aware that the Western view has exoticized and eroticized women and cultures of the region. Senha Sultan, an Ottoman princess, wrote to Madame Simone de la Cherte, a French friend, in response the ways women were portrayed.
My dear! We, Turkish women, are not known in Europe at all. I can even say that we are much less known than Chinese and Japanese women. Regardless of how far Peking and Tokyo are from Paris ... Istanbul is nearby, though.
They make up really unimaginable stories about us. Not important! They anticipate us to be slaves, to be imprisoned in rooms, to live only behind lattice windows, to be chained up and watched over by ferocious black and other slaves who are armed from head to foot and who are also thought to put us into sacks and then throw us into the Bosphorus from time to time. We are assumed to live in a group of numerous rivaling wives, and they expect every Turkish man to have a harem of his own, that is, to have at least eight or ten wives [in Gole, 1996:27].
Turkish women are rarely secluded, but there is, as in many other parts of the Mediterranean, engendered space, especially in smaller towns.
...[M]en buy clothing and women themselves only shop locally for essential food. ... But while women may sometimes enter the market space, they are almost totally excluded from its social and occupational structure. There are very few women shopkeepers in Izmirs central market, and no small manufacturers, merchants or wholesale traders who are women. There are barbers, but no hairdressers [Marcus, 1992:117].
[During the Fulbright-Hays Seminar of 1998, we met women who are involved in production and international trade but these women are few in number.] The West constructs its culture and identity by being simultaneously attracted and repelled by the differences of the "exotic" East. Edward Said theorizes that through these constructs the West creates an "inferior" and "repressed" other .
At the same time, Turkey constructs her cultural identity, as well. Gole notes that Ataturk, in a speech on March 21, 1923, used the ideological Anatolian woman to construct the identity of the Turkish Republic and Turkish women:
It is always they, the noble, self-sacrificing, godly Anatolian women who plough, cultivate the land, fell firewood in the forest, barter in the marketplace and run the family; and above all, it is still they who carry the ammunition to the front of their shoulders, with their ox-carts, with their children, regardless of rain, winter and hot days [Gole, 1996:64].
On March 5, 1997, a panel entitled "To Be a Woman in Turkey" was organized by Iletisim Kulubu and Ataturkcu Dusunce Toplulugu. Sema Piskinsut, a participant, stated that for women to improve their socio-economic status, they must participate more in public venues. Senal Sarihan, also a participant, suggested that men and women should work together to protect a secular Turkey [http://www.bilkent].
Just one year later, "Police broke up an International Womens Day demonstration with batons and tear gas on March 8 in Istanbul. Demonstrators were injured in the central Taksim square, the Anatolian news agency reported" The report continues that "the police reacted after demonstrators called for the right of self-determination for Turkeys Kurdish population in the countrys south-east" [report by Norm Dixon at http://www3]. A topic for further study is how are International Womens Day and the "Kurdish problem" connected? Who are the women who were demonstrating? What was the tone of the rest of the demonstration?
Turkey is a secular nation which many Turks wish to maintain. There is a conflict, however, in secularist Turkey regarding religion. 98-99% of Turks are muslim. The religious continuum ranges from non-practicing muslim to very conservative Islamic beliefs. One of the most visible symbols of the secular/religious continuum is "veiling" or modest Islamic dress. Many times symbols are placed upon womens bodies and affects womens lives directly. Sultan Abdulmecid (1823-1861), in a "westernizing mood," ordered the women of his harem to wear European corsets, a symbol of constraints upon womens bodies.
Ataturks plans to modernize (perhaps read "Westernize") Turkey included leaving behind symbols of Islam which many interpreted as "backward." Ataturk realized the symbolic importance of clothing and stated, "The people of the Turkish Republic, which acknowledges civilization, ought to prove their state of civilization with their entire family life, lifestyle, and their outer appearance from head to foot," and then enacted "hat reform" in 1925 [Gole, 1996:60]. One of the symbols outlawed was the wearing of the veil or headscarf. The fez as well as the robe was outlawed for men. Hijab (modest Islamic dress) is not permitted for those women serving in any position with funding from the State. As a result of this, women who wish to express their faith publicly by covering their heads are denied employment. Also, women who cover are also denied permission to take examinations in order to complete their studies at the highly competitive and expensive universities of Turkey. Recent reports state that women students are being denied university registration unless they submit ID photographs with bared hair and necks. One university professor (a woman) told me that she believed that these students must be willing to commit to their studies and show their commitment by following the secular laws of Turkey. Another university professor (again a woman) said she could not understand why women are not given a choice about headcoverings. "All that is covered is heads, not minds. I could easily perform my job with a scarf on my head. If we [the Turkish Republic] are secular, we should have choices." A complicating factor in discussing veiling by female students is that most of the veiled students come from small-town, Anatolian families who practice Islam in more traditional forms. Even the families do not always support the radicalization of Islam demonstrated by the headscarves or chador. [See Gole, 1996:88-92 for interviews with women regarding veiling and education.] "Veiled women are not simply passive conveyors of the provincial traditional culture; they are, rather, active and self-asserting women who seek opportunities in modernism" [Gole, 1996:92].
Gole, a Turkish sociologist who did fieldwork in Turkey, writes about veiling at great length regarding tensions between public/private, secular/religious, Western/traditional, individual rights/multiculturalism. She notes that veiling has become a point of contention, in part, because it is a highly visible symbol.
Veiling can thus be considered as a social movement in that Muslim female students articulate their claims collectively and publicly and define the objectives of their action autonomously. The veiling movement has become a source of political conflict and polarization between secularists and Islamists, one that has engaged intellectuals, university faculty, mass media, and political parties in a fierce debate. But, foremost, this debate has revealed the deep social and cultural cleavages between secularists and Islamists in general and among women in particular [Gole, 1996:2]....Metaphorically, womens covered bodies revitalize contemporary Islamist movements and differentiate them from the secularist project [Gole, 1996:3].
At the same time that women are covering and displaying Islamic identities, they are also "Criticizing the pseudoprotectionism of Muslim men," and "claim their right to acquire personality -- that is, a life of their own -- and, consequently, provoke disorder is Islamic gender definitions and identities" [Gole, 1996:22]. Women, whether veiled or unveiled, become the focus of struggle.
The issue of veiling is very often in the news. On Monday, September 14, 1998 a man hijacked a Turkish Airlines plane. Ihsan Akyuz hijacked the plane to protest the university ban on head-coverings [Hacaoglu, 1998]. Voice of America reports that wig sales are booming as women decide to wear synthetic wigs which cover their hair, thus circumventing both civil and religious requirements [Zaman, 1998]. Some conservative women who have lost their jobs have filed a human rights suit against the government but have little hope of restitution. According to Zaman, 164 military officers, many of whom are married to covered women, were purged during June because of "fundamentalist links" . One Istanbul wigmaker reports selling around 20 wigs per week during a school term.
Others argue that womens rights are a central tenet of Ataturks legacy of Turkey as a secular democracy. Gole observes,
Unlike most national revolutions, which redefine the attributes of an "ideal man," the Kemalist revolution celebrated an "ideal woman." Within the emerging Kemalist paradigm, women became bearers of Westernization and carriers of secularism, and actresses gave testimony to the dramatic shift of civilization [Gole, 1996:14].
The noted feminist, Halide Edip Adivar (1882-1964) [see history chronology below], "drew the ideal type of Kemalist women: those who aim to serve the nation, who are participants in political affairs. At the same time they do not lack tenderness; they are dignified companions, mothers of the nation, populists....[the woman] is strong and struggles for the benefit of her nation" [Gole, 1996:56].
It should be noted that even during the Ottoman Empire laws providing for womens equality were being enacted. In 1857 male and female children were granted equal rights of inheritance. In 1842 a midwifery school opened. In 1858 junior highs for girls were opened followed in 1863 trade schools, 1870 teachers training schools, and 1910 the first institute of higher learning for women. In 1917, women were granted the right to divorce. Women were granted suffrage in 1934. [Womens suffrage in the United States was obtain just 14 years earlier.] The Turkish Constitution forbids discrimination in the public sector between the sexes and women are to receive equal pay for equal work [http://turkey.org/today/ttn14.htm].
Womens rights combine with human rights. On October 6, 1998, Ayse Nur Zarakoglu was prevented from leaving Turkey to accept the "Freedom to Publish" award given by Frankfurt Book Fair. Zarakoglu is outspoken on human rights issues and quoted a U.S. diplomat who was critical of police tactics against Kurdish rebels. Zarakoglu allowed her passport to expire knowing that pending court cases would prevent obtaining a new passport.
Also recently in the news is the kidnapping of Islamist feminist Konca Kuris on July 17, 1998. Womens rights campaigners have demanded that security officials do more to solve the abduction of Kuris. "We have searched all over Turkey...at this point, if she is still alive she will come home herself," Mersin deputy police chief Durust Oktay told the daily Yeni Yuzyil. Kuris supports a more active womens role in the practice of Islam, "including standing beside men during funeral prayers" [Turgut, 1998]. She proposes that Muslim worship in Turkey be in Turkish, not Arabic.
The History and Statistics sections which follow will direct the reader to other issues concerning Women in Turkey.
As in all cultures, women have played an important, but many time unrecognized, role in history. This is true in Turkey, as well. The following is a brief timeline of women and events which play a role Turkish history. The following references are taken from The Chronology of Womens History by Kirstin Olsen and The Timetables of Womens History: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in Womens History by Karen Greenspan.
639-642 Muslim conquest of Egypt. Muhammad is assisted by warrior women such as Nassiba bint Kaab and Om Solayem bint Nathan [Olsen, 1994:31].
656 Aishah (613-678), favorite wife of Muhammad, leads troops in rebellion against Caliph Ali at the Battle of the Camel and became a powerful political, military, and theological leader [Olsen, 1994:31]. Many muslim women refer to these women as role models for muslim women today.
1583 Sultana Baffa is strangled in her bed. A Venetian by birth, she was kidnapped by pirates and sold to the sultans harem where she became known as Safiye and quickly rose to power. Her influence over Murad IV kept Venetian ships safe from Turkish depredations and her influence continued during the reign of her son Mehmed III. Other nationals recognized her power and Catherine de Medici and Elizabeth I negotiated with her [Olsen, 1994:62].
1717 English author Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, on a trip to Turkey, discovers the practice of smallpox inoculation, which is practiced by village women. She brings the custom back to England, publishes a paper on the subject, and conducts successful experiments. However, her contribution is largely overlooked and credit goes to Edward Jenners much later work on the subject [Olsen, 1994].
1789 Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid I dies. According to custom, his wives and concubines retire to the House of Tears. However, his favorite, Nakshedil (Aimee DeBucq de Revery, b. 1763 and a cousin of Josephine Bonaparte), is invited to remain by Abdulhamids son and successor, Selim III. Nakshedil teaches Selim French, becomes his advisor, and helps him open diplomatic channels with France. When Selim is assassinated in 1807, Nakshedil saves her own son, Mahmud, by hiding him in a furnace. Mahmud becomes the next sultan and is guided by his mother [Olsen, 1994].
1842 Midwifery school for women opens.
1857 Male and female children granted equal rights of inheritance.
1858 Junior highs for girls open.
1863 Trade schools for women open.
1870 Teachers training schools for women open.
1891 The first womens weekly in Turkey begins publication [Olsen, 1994:160].
1909 Harems outlawed in Turkey [Olsen, 1994:184].
1909 Halide Adivar (1883-1964) is forced to flee for her life after her feminist views become too unpopular with the new government. She will fight in Turkeys War of Independence and become the first woman professor at the University of Istanbul [Olsen, 1994:185].
1910 The first institute of higher learning for women opens.
1912 Turkish nationalist, Halide Adivar, publishes Handan, a feminist novel. Adivar becomes the only female member of Turkeys nationalist club, Ojak [Olsen 1994:190-91].
1917 Women granted the right to divorce.
1918 Halide Adivar elected to council of the Ojak, the Turkey Nationalist Club [Olsen, 1994:205].
1920 Turkish physician Safiek Ali is one of the first female medical doctors in her country [Greenspan, 1994:319].
1925 Turkey bans the custom requiring women to veil their faces [Greenspan, 1994:324].
1926 Turkey outlaws polygyny and the veil [Olsen, 1994:222].
1926 Turkish women admitted to the bar and the bench [Greenspan, 1994:326].
1934 Women in Turkey get the vote.
1958 Turkish astronomer, Nuzhet Gokdogen, becomes the head of the observatory at Istanbul University [Olsen, 1994:289].
1970 The first woman to head a political party in Turkey, Mrs. B. Boran, is elected head of the Labor party [Greenspan, 1994:373].
1973 Turkish film producer Turkan Sorays releases the film Going Back, about a village woman returning to her home after several years in Istanbul [Olsen, 1994:328].
1980 Turkish dancer Ozcan Tekgul is awarded a certificate of honor by the National Turkish Cinema Council; she says, "I win this prize not for my belly dancing...but because of my contributions to the Turkish Oriental dance." The award is denied by the Islamic minister of culture [Greenspan, 1994:393].
1991 University professor Lale Aytaman becomes Turkeys first female provincial governor [Olsen, 1994:385].
1991 Semra Ozmal is elected head of the Istanbul branch of the ruling Motherland party in Turkey [Greenspan, 1994:407].
1993 Tansu Ciller becomes Turkeys first female prime minister [Olsen, 1994:393].
The following are statistics concerning women in Turkey. Although statistics do not tell the whole story, it is possible to use the information as an adjunct to ethnographies, histories, and first-hand observation. The following statistics give information regarding womens health, work, employment, and the overall status of women. One fact the reader must keep in mind is: Nowhere in the world do women have full equal rights with men. It is easy, especially for American readers, to assume that women in the United States are far ahead of women in Turkey; however, it is important to keep in mind that all countries have a long way to go to equality. The following statistics are compiled from Seager and Olsons, Women in the World: An International Atlas  and reflect data gathered in the early 1980s. The format of this atlas is based on ranges and presented, in the book, in a user-friendly, visual manner. [A new edition has been published but was not available at the University of South Dakota.]
Overall Index: combines womens literacy, suffrage, contraceptive use, paid work and life expectancy (based on a scale of 0-100).
9.8 Guinea Bissau 41-60 Turkey 88 Sweden (The U.S. ranks between Turkey and Sweden.)
55.1 - 65 Turkey (4.1 - 6 years longer than men) >75 U.S. (6 years or more than men)
Households headed by women
10 - 20% Turkey 10 - 20% U.S.
Women aged 15-19 ever officially married
10 - 24.9% Turkey 10 - 24.9% U.S.
Proportion of women aged 45-49 never officially married
1 - 2.4% Turkey 2.5 - 4.9% U.S.
Fertility rate (Average number of children women bear)
4.1 - 6.0 Turkey < 2 U.S.
Government policy towards family planning
Direct support Turkey Direct support U.S.
Married women ages 15-44 using contraception
40 - 59% Turkey >60% U.S.
Legal if foetus is damaged, is a result of rape or incest, or the womans health is suffering. Turkey
Births attended by medically trained personnel
31 - 50% Turkey >90% U.S.
Pregnant women suffering from anaemia
Maternity leave (See 1995 U.N. statistics below)
12 weeks or more but without full pay Turkey Some leave and pay provisions U.S.
Number of school children for every 1,00 women of childbearing age
451 - 650 Turkey 301-450 U.S.
Women as a proportion of the agricultural labor force (not including subsistence agriculture)
>81% Turkey 11 - 30% U.S.
Proportion of all paid workers who are women (Some not reported because of the informal sector.)
26 - 35% Turkey 36 - 45% U.S.
Proportion of women aged 15 or over working for wages or trade
26 - 45% Turkey 46 - 65% U.S.
Number of girls enrolled in primary and secondary per 100 boy
66 - 80 Turkey
Number of women ages 20-24 in higher education per 100 men (1985)
31 - 50 Turkey >100 U.S.
% of adult women who are illiterate
25 - 49% Turkey (This number is 101-200% higher than the rate for men.)
Date of womens suffrage
1934 Turkey 1920 U.S.
Woman as head of national government
1993 Turkey U.S. has not had a woman head of government
Women in cabinet
<5% Turkey >20% U.S.
Women in legislative branch
<5% Turkey <5% U.S.
Women in the armed forces
0 Turkey (except <1% in medical corps) 9.5% U.S.
Women in medicine
23% of nurses are female Turkey 96% of nurses are female U.S.
13% of doctors are female U.S.
Women in education
pre-primary teachers 98% Turkey unknown U.S.
primary teachers 42% 84%
secondary teachers 35% 47%
university teachers 25% 26%
Women in media
10% of print media workers Turkey 40% of all media workers U.S.
1985 Turkey had participants in both the Miss World and Miss Universe contests
1971 Miss Universe was a Turkish woman
World Political Organizations
1985 Participated in the United Nations Decade for Women Conference in Nairobi
The following statistics are reported in The Worlds Women 1995 by the United Nations.
1991-1992 Unemployment Rate
women: 7.2% Turkey 6.9% U.S.
men: 8.1% 7.6%
Maternity leave policy
6 weeks before & 6 weeks after with 3/4 of wages covered by social insurance Turkey
12 weeks total unpaid U.S.
Adult (15+) economic activity (1994) (females per 100 males)
Labor force 34 Turkey 41 U.S.
Professional & Technical 47 103
Administrative & Managerial 4 67
Clerical & Related 48 392
Sales 7 100
Service 11 150
Agriculture & Related 109 19
Production & Transportation 12 22
Mean age at marriage
Women: 21.5 Turkey 23.3 U.S.
Men: 24.6 25.2
% currently married (ages 15-19)
Women: 15.6 Turkey 4.6 U.S.
Men: 5.1 1.4
% never married (ages 45+)
Women: 1.4 Turkey 4.7 U.S.
Men: 2.2 5.4
From The Sioux City Journal, Monday, October 12, 1998, page A-9.
Turkish Muslim women march to protest ban on head scarves.
ANKARA, Turkey (AP) -- Thousands of Muslims demonstrators joined hands and marched Sunday throughout Turkey to protest a ban on Islamic-style head scarves in schools and public offices.
Police shot and killed one person in an argument over at traffic jam caused by the protests.
The Anatolia news agency said the shooting took place in the eastern city of Elazig, when a group of soccer fans on their way to a match got stuck in a traffic jam caused by the demonstration. It said police opened fire, killing a 25-year-old soccer fan and wounding two others.
The marches in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and at least eight smaller towns and cities were the largest demonstration against the ban since universities last month refused to register women who failed to submit ID photographs with bare heads.
Protesters, mostly women in scarves or black Islamic chadors, carried banners reading, "We Want Our Right to Education Back," and "Respect Belief, Free Thought."
Since chanting anti-secular slogans in Istanbul is illegal, demonstrators there clapped or blew on whistles instead.
The government had declared the nationwide protest illegal and Deputy Premier Bulent Ecevit told NTV television it was an "uprising" by people hiding behind young girls. Several hundred people were reported detained nationwide for taking part in the demonstrations.
The ban on head scarves is enforced at the urging of the military, the guardian of Turkeys secular regime. The military regards scarves as a political statement and radical Islam as a threat to Turkeys secular system.
[Photo captions: Muslim women hold balloons and a poster during a protest in Istanbul, Turkey, on Sunday. They are protesting a ban on Islamic-style head scarves in schools and public offices. The military guardian of the secular regime, regards scarves as a political statement. (AP photo)]
1986 Women in the Developing World: Evidence from Turkey. Denver, CO: Monograph Series in World Affairs.
Women in Contemporary Turkey. URL: http://turkey.org/turkey/r_women.htm
Women Turn to Wigs to Avoid Ban. URL: http://dailynews.ya...stories/wigs_1.html Reuters Limited. July 25.
Cinar, E. Mine
1989 Taking Work at Home: Disguised Female Employment in Urban Turkey. Loyola University of Chicago School of Business Administration Working Paper No. 8810. Chicago: Loyola University.
1998 IWD in Turkey Attacked. URL: http://www3.silas.u...998/310/310p18c.htm
1996 The Forbidden Modern: Civilization and Veiling. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
1994 The Timetables of Womens History: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in Womens History. NY: Simon and Schuster.
1998 Hijacker Surrenders in Turkey. URL: http://dailynews.yahoo.com/headlines/ap/i..rnational/stories/turkey_hijacking_6.html Associated Press, September 14.
1997 To Be a Woman in Turkey. Panel report. URL: http://www.bilkent....Inews/n17/women.htm
1998 Turkish Writer Barred from Collecting Book Prize. URL: http://dailynews.ya...ure-bookfair_1.html Reuters Limited, October 6.
1992 A World of Difference: Islam and Gender Hierarchy in Turkey. London: Zed Books Ltd.
1994 Chronology of Womens History. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press.
1978 Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.
Seager, Joni and Ann Olson
1986 Women in the World: An International Atlas. NY: Simon and Schuster.
1998 Turkish Women Urge Action on Feminists Abduction. URL: http://dailynews.ya...27/wl/turkey1.html Reuters Limited. August 27.
Turkish State Institute of Statistics
1990 Household Labor Force Survey Results.
1995 The Worlds Women, 1995: Trends and Statistics. Social Statistics and Indicators, Series K. No. 12.
Ward, Martha C.
1999 A World Full of Women, 2nd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
White, Jenny B.
1994 Money Makes Us Relatives: Womens Labor in Urban Turkey. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
1998 Correspondent Report. URL: http://zeus.hri.org/news/usa/voa/1998/98-07-09.voa.html#03 Voice of America, July 9.
Web Sources to Enhance Research
Web sites change. This information may not be completely accurate when you search.
Camera Media Report -- http://world.std.com/~camera/
Center for Middle Eastern Studies -- http://w3.arizona.edu/~cmesua/
Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies -- http://www.dur.ac.uk/~dme0www/
Dushkin Publishing -- http://www.dushkin.com/globalstudies.
Focus on Turkey -- http://www.focusmm.com/trgn0006.htm
Middle East Institute -- http://www2.ari.net/mei/mei.html
Middle East Internet Pages -- http://www.middle-east-pages.com/
Middle East Policy Council -- http://www.mepc.org/
Middle East Security Reprot -- http://www.me-dialogue.demon.co.uk/
Middle Eastern and Arab Resources -- http://www.ionet.net/~usarch/WTB-Site.shtml
Mining Co. Guide
Women in Islam URL: http://women3rdworld.tqn.com/msub47.htm
1998 Women in the Muslim World: Perspectives from the Past. Women in World History Curriculum. URL: http://home.earthlink.net/~womenwhist/catalog.html
Search Turkey -- http://www.searchturkey.com/
1965, 1994 Turkish Village. The Centre for Social Anthropology and Computing. University of Kent at Canterbury -- http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/TVillage/StirlingC1.html
Turkish Odyssey -- http://www.turkishodyssey.com/
Women in World History -- http://home.earthlink.net/~womenwhist/
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