Chapter 6: Multiple Choice Questions

With the benefit of your textbook and the Internet resources, study the following questions for the test.

1. One of the first major attempts to change public opinion was
A. Gallup polling.
B. straw polling.
C. The Pennsylvania Packet.
D. The Federalist Papers.

2. The founder of modern polling was
A. Louis Harris.
B. Stan Roper.
C. George Gallup.
D. Patrick Cadell.

3. The Committee on Public Information was designed to rally public opinion behind the U.S. war effort and was established by
A. Woodrow Wilson.
B. Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
C. Teddy Roosevelt.
D. Harry S Truman.

4. A famous journalist and author who voiced his concern about how easy it was to manipulate public opinion was
A. Walter Winchell.
B. Walter Lippman.
C. Edward R. Murrow.
D. Ernie Pyle.

5. Public opinion, as we know it today, began to develop in the
A. 1950s.
B. 1940s.
C. 1930s.
D. 1920.s

6. One Pennsylvania newspaper was the first to try to predict the winner of a presidential election in
A. 1824.
B. 1900.
C. 1912.
D. 1936.

7. One magazine correctly predicted every presidential election from 1920 to 1932. That magazine was
A. Time.
B. Look.
C. New Yorker.
D. Literary Digest.

8. Literary Digest used __________ polls to predict the popular vote in presidential elections.
A. exit
B. straw
C. tracking
D. deliberative

9. Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues are called
A. exit polls.
B. straw polls.
C. tracking polls.
D. deliberative polls.

10. The polling industry suffered a setback in 1948 when it predicted that __________ would win the presidential election.
A. Harry S Truman
B. Strom Thurmond
C. Henry Wallace
D. Thomas Dewey

11. The Literary Digest's polling sample had a number of fatal errors including
A. the wealthy were oversampled, leading to an oversampling of Republican voters.
B. polls were taken in early September and voters changed their minds by November.
C. post cards were sent out, so the sample ended up being self selected-only 22 percent responded.
D. all of the above.

12. The 1936 election was correctly predicted by
A. George Gallup.
B. The Literary Digest.
C. the National Election Study.
D. all of the above.

13. Every two years, since 1960, there have been regular surveys of the American electorate known as the
A. General Social Survey.
B. Barometer of the American Electorate.
C. National Election Study.
D. National Public Opinion Survey.

14. The process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations is called
A. politicization.
B. socialization.
C. acquisition.
D. public opinion.

15. Agents of political socialization include
A. family and friends.
B. the mass media.
C. schools.
D. all of the above.

16. Your political opinions are often affected by
A. political events.
B. your race or gender.
C. the region of the country in which you live.
D. all of the above.

17. In 1988, __________% of children in Republican households identified themselves as Republicans.
A. 88
B. 72
C. 58
D. 32

18. The media is taking on a growing role as an agent of socialization because adult Americans spend an average of __________ hours per week watching television.
A. 30
B. 50
C. 80
D. 100

19. During the 2000 presidential elections, __________% of Americans learned about the presidential campaign from David Letterman and Jay Leno or other non-traditional sources.
A. 25
B. 34
C. 51
D. 65

20. Of those under age 30, __________% watch nightly television news.
A. 10
B. 22
C. 30
D. 45

21. A child's peer group is most influential in
A. preschool.
B. early elementary school.
C. late elementary school.
D. middle and high school.

22. Many events in the 20th century have increased the American people's distrust of government, including
A. Watergate.
B. the Civil Rights Movement.
C. Vietnam.
D. all of the above.

23. Group membership tends to affect political beliefs and opinions, particularly groups such as
A. religious affiliation.
B. gender and age.
C. race and income.
D. all of the above.

24. In 2000, __________% of Americans belonged to a church or synagogue.
A. 27
B. 42
C. 67
D. 96

25. In 1997, __________% of Americans identified themselves as Protestant.
A. 58
B. 42
C. 31
D. 22

26. The most conservative religious group tends to be
A. Catholics.
B. Protestants.
C. Muslims.
D. Jews.

27. The most liberal religious group tends to be
A. Catholics.
B. Protestants.
C. Muslims.
D. Jews.

28. Among minority groups, __________ tend to be the most politically conservative.
A. Asians
B. Hispanics
C. Cubans
D. all of the above.

29. Historically, there have been gender differences in political attitudes on a number of issues, including
A. defense spending and affirmative action.
B. foreign aid and the United Nations.
C. economic issues.
D. all of the above.

30. The idea that women often tend to have different political attitudes than men is referred to as the
A. political gap.
B. gender gap.
C. sexual theory of voting.
D. battle of the sexes.

31. The fastest growing age group in America is
A. under 25.
B. 26-40.
C. 41-60.
D. over 65.

32. Among those citizens under 30, __________% are likely to follow campaigns closely.
A. 15
B. 25
C. 33
D. 50

33. Among those citizens over 60, __________% are likely to follow campaigns closely.
A. 35
B. 43
C. 55
D. 68

34. Church attendance is highest in the
A. Midwest.
B. West.
C. South.
D. Northeast.

35. In general, the citizens who live in the American West tend to
A. favor higher defense spending.
B. be highly religious.
C. vote for liberals.
D. have an anti-government bias.

36. When asked, __________% of Americans referred to themselves as politically moderate.
A. 42
B. 55
C. 63
D. 75

37. In 1998, __________% of Americans referred to themselves as politically conservative.
A. 65
B. 43
C. 39
D. 20

38. Most people, who are not ideologues, think about and may change their ideas about politics through a variety of factors, including
A. personal benefits.
B. political knowledge.
C. cues from leaders and opinion makers.
D. all of the above

39. In the United States, __________% graduate from high school.
A. 95
B. 82
C. 78
D. 65

40. Rapid shifts in public opinion are often due to
A. political ideology.
B. the rise of new issues and candidates.
C. low levels of knowledge among the public.
D. generational change.

41. There are several key factors necessary for accurate polling, including
A. determining the content and phrasing of questions.
B. selecting the sample.
C. contacting respondents.
D. all of the above.

42. The best method of selecting a polling sample is
A. nonstratified sampling.
B. stratified, random sampling.
C. straw polling.
D. self selected sampling.

43. The most common form of polling is the
A. straw poll.
B. deliberative poll.
C. telephone poll.
D. direct mail survey.

44. All polls contain errors. In order to determine how reliable a poll is, one must determine the
A. margin of error.
B. standard deviation.
C. inaccuracy rate.
D. all of the above.

45. One of the shortcomings of polling is that
A. only elite opinion is measured.
B. they are unable to measure the intensity of feelings about issues.
C. all polls contain excessive errors.
D. all of the above.

46. Public opinion polling began in the 1800s.

47. Straw polls are reliable methods to predict election results.

48. Children often learn their political attitudes from their parents.

49. Adults generally spend 30 hours a week watching television. They tend to watch slightly more television than most children.

50. In 1996, very few candidates chose to use the Internet to publicize their campaign.

51. In 1994, the Kids Voting Project helped lead to higher voter turnout among parents.

52. Political events are often very important in shaping political attitudes.

53. Forty percent of Americans claim to have no religious affiliation.

54. In general, race is not a predictor of political beliefs.

55. Women tend to have more positive attitudes about social welfare issues, education, and the environment.

56. Men tend to be greater supporters of defense spending than women.

57. Senior citizens do not vote often, nor do they vote as a bloc.

58. Age has a decided effect on one's view of the proper role of government.

59. The region of the country in which you live has little effect on political attitudes.

60. Only fifteen percent of Americans consider themselves to be politically moderate.

61. In 1996, 94 percent of Americans could not identify the Chief Justice of the United States.

62. The wording of a polling question determines the validity and reliability of the poll.

63. Question order has no impact on the reliability of a poll.

64. Polls based on probability samples are more accurate than those based on quota sampling.

65. Telephone polls are not very representative.

Key for the questions:

1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. B
10. D
11. D
12. A
13. C
14. B
15. D
16. D
17. C
18. A
19. C
20. B
21. D
22. D
23. D
24. C
25. A
26. B
27. D
28. C
29. A
30. B
31. D
32. A
33. B
34. C
35. D
36. A
37. C
38. D
39. B
40. C
41. D
42. B
43. C
44. A
45. B
46. F
47. F
48. T
49. F
50. F
51. T
52. T
53. F
54. F
55. T
56. T
57. F
58. T
59. F
60. F
61. T
62. T
63. F
64. T
65. F