Chapter 3: Multiple Choice Questions

With the benefit of your textbook and the Internet resources, study the following questions for the test.       

1. The 10th Amendment states that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are

A. the sole authority of Congress.
B. reserved to the central government.
C. reserved to the states, or the people.
D. the sole authority of the executive branch.

2. Of the different ways of ordering relations between central governments and local units, the most popular method is

A. a unitary system.                     
B. a confederal system.
C. a federal system
D. a bicameral system.

3. Of about 200 countries in the world,

A. the most common political system is a unitary system.
B. the most common political system is a federal system.
C. the most common political system is a confederal system.
D. both b and c.

4. What kind of grant-in-aid allows the recipient of the grant the least independence in determining how the money will be spent?

A. Revenue sharing
B. Categorical grant
C. Block grant
D. None of the above

5. What event is most closely associated with the federal government assuming its greatest power?

A. The Revolutionary War
B. The Civil War
C. The Great Depression
D. The Vietnam War

6. In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not citizens, but property, in the case,
A. McCulloch v. Maryland.
B. Plessy v. Ferguson.
C. Gibbons v. Ogden.
D. Dred Scott v. Sandford.

7. The era of dual federalism ended with the
A. Civil War.
B. Great Depression.
C. Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
D. passage of the 14th Amendment.

8. In the 1930s, the era of dual federalism came to an end with the Great Depression. This crisis led to
A. a variety of innovative programs to combat unemployment.
B. a whole new ideology of government.
C. an increase in federal power.
D. all of the above.

9. During the early years of the 'New Deal,' the Supreme Court
A. ruled many programs unconstitutional.
B. continued to enforce the supremacy clause, thus ruling New Deal programs constitutional.
C. cooperated with the administration to combat the depression.
D. worked in favor of programs designed to combat the crisis.

10. During the early years of the 'New Deal,' the attitude of the Supreme Court towards federal economic intervention could be characterized as
A. reluctant.
B. laissez-faire.
C. interventionist.
D. activist.

11. In response to the Supreme Court's opposition to many New Deal programs, FDR suggested
A. impeaching the entire Supreme Court.
B. reducing the pay of sitting Supreme Court justices.
C. increasing the number of justices from nine to thirteen.
D. all of the above.

12. New Deal programs led to an era of federalism often referred to as __________ federalism.
A. dual
B. weak
C. layer-cake
D. cooperative

13. Cooperative federalism is characterized by
A. a stronger, more influential national government.
B. stronger state governments.
C. a shift in power from the national to state governments.
D. increasing power of local governments.

14. The first true federal grant program funded
A. roads and bridges.
B. welfare and pension payments.
C. land-grant colleges.
D. all of the above.

15. Federal grant programs often have the effect of
A. reducing the power of the national government to influence state use of funds.
B. making it easier for the federal government to impose national goals on the states.
C. giving federal powers to the states with few strings attached.
D. forcing states to decline funding.

16. In 1964, the Johnson administration launched a broad attempt to combat social ills called
A. the New Deal.
B. revenue sharing.
C. categorical grants.
D. the Great Society.

17. By 1970, federal grants accounted for __________ percent of all state and local spending.
A. 20
B. 30
C. 40
D. 50

18. Programs passed by Congress requiring state compliance that come with no appropriated funds are called
A. unconstitutional.
B. federal block rules.
C. unfunded mandates.
D. unappropriated legislation.

19. President Reagan preferred less restrictive funding to state and local governments called __________ grants.
A. creative
B. categorical
C. intergovernmental
D. block

20. Programs to channel federal monies to the states with 'no strings attached' are known as
A. categorical grants.
B. block grants.
C. preemption.
D. grants-in-aid.

21. In a country administered under a UNITARY STATE system of government:

A. the national government has only those powers delegated to it by the regional governments.
B. the national and regional governments have separate and distinct powers.
C. the national government has complete control over regional government.
D. the regional governments can overrule the decisions of the national government.

22. Federal courts created the doctrine of DUAL FEDERALISM in order to:

A. increase the powers of the federal government.
B. increase the powers of state governments.
C. distinguish between the powers of the federal and state governments.
D. equalize the power between the federal and state governments.

23. In a federal political system, power is

A. always vested in a bicameral legislature.
B. shared between the central government and constituent governments.
C. bestowed in the central government, with no power being granted to constituent government.
D. concentrated in a unicameral legislature within a strong central government.

24. The concept of horizontal federalism deals with

A. relationships between the national government and state governments.
B. relationships between state governments.
C. relationships between state government and the local or county governments.
D. relationships between the national government and other democratic governments.

25. States may not

A. license marriages.
B. regulate sale of liquor.
C. license occupations.
D. make treaties with foreign nations.

26. The privileges and immunities clause of the Constitution means

A. elected officials of the national government cannot be tried by state governments.
B. elected officials of state government cannot be tried by the national government.
C. a citizen of one state cannot be treated as an alien in another state.
D. a citizen of another country cannot be treated as an alien in any state.

27. A league of independent states in which the central government handles only those matters of common concern EXPRESSLY delegated to it is referred to as a

A. federal system.
B. confederal system.
C. unitary system.
D. democratic system.

28. The state of Maryland imposed a tax on the Bank of the United States because

A. individuals were not being taxed on their money by the national government.
B. the Bank of the United States was the only bank in Maryland.
C. Maryland taxed all banks at that time.
D. it feared an extension of centralized political power.

29. Unitary systems:

A. Have only one branch of government.
B. have only one house in the national legislature.
C. do not have an independent judiciary.
D. do not have independent state governments.

30. The purposes of federal grants are to:

A. supply state and local governments with revenue.
B. equalize resources among states.
C. attack major problems with a minimum growth in federal agencies.
D. all of the above.

31. The implied powers of the national government

A. are limited by the decisions of state governments.
B. are delegated in Article II, section 6.
C. give elasticity to our constitutional system.
D. restricts Congress from passing legislation that is not specifically delegated in the Constitution.

32. What is the constitutional basis for Congress's implied powers?

A. The concept of checks and balances
B. The necessary and proper clause
C. the doctrine of separation of powers
D. The supremacy clause

33. This is not the state power according to the 10th amendment:

A. conduct elections
B. determine qualifications of voters
C. establish local government
D. making treaties
E. provide public safety

34. To which government does eminent domain apply?

A. only federal
B. only state
C. both federal and state
D. neither federal nor state

35. Which amendments to the U.S. Constitution limited State sovereignty?

A. 14th Amendment
B. 16th Amendment
C. 24th Amendment
D. A & B
E. All of the above

36. Federal government obligations to states include all of the following except

A. provide security
B. organize and hold elections for state office
C. respect territorial integrity
D. protect against domestic violence
E. guarantee a republican form of government

37. Which of the following nations is governed by a unitary system of government?
a. Switzerland
b. India
c. Germany
d. Britain
e. Newfoundland

38. The concept of dual federalism prevailed in the United States until the administration of
a. Richard Nixon
b. Lyndon Johnson
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt
d. Ronald Reagan
e. Bill Clinton
39 Which of the following is an example of a concurrent power?
a. the power to coin money
b. the power to tax
c. the power to make treaties
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
40 Which institution serves as an arbiter or umpire in questions of state versus national power?
a. Congress
b. the presidency
c. the Supreme Court
d. the Federal Arbitration Commission
e. the National Association of Governors
41. In addition to the doctrine of implied powers, Chief Justice Marshall, in his decision in the Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), established the key concept of
a. national supremacy
b. regulatory federalism
c. revenue sharing
d. inherent powers
e. "separate by equal" doctrine
42. Much of the growth of big government and of federal social welfare programs took place during the New Deal in the 1930s and during the administration of
a. Dwight D. Eisenhower
b. Lyndon Johnson
c. Richard Nixon
d. Ronald Reagan
e. FDR

43. The case of New Jersey v. New York (1999) is important because it
A. is an example of the Court interpretation of the Commerce Clause.
B. is an example of the Court interpretation of the Full Faith and Credit Clause.
C. illustrates the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
D. illustrates the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

44. The Framers created the federal system in order to
A. preserve power for the elite in society.
B. establish a more democratic political system that was also efficient.
C. establish a powerful central government and minimize the authority of state and local governments.
D. prevent tyranny by dividing the powers of government.

45. Federalism refers to a
A. relationship between the national and state governments.
B. relationship among the state governments.
C. political system in which power is vested in the national government.
D. political system in which power is vested in the state governments.

46. Under the Constitution, national and state governments are
A. totally autonomous.
B. endowed with exclusively separate powers.
C. accountable to the people.
D. inherently separate spheres of government.

47. The supremacy clause is found in
A. the Declaration of Independence.
B. the Preamble.
C. Article II.
D. Article VI.

48. The meaning of the supremacy clause has been
A. clear and explicit.
B. unambiguous.
C. changed by Congress.
D. continuously reinterpreted.

49. In situations of conflict between state and national law, national law prevails due to
A. federalism.
B. the supremacy clause.
C. the Tenth Amendment.
D. full faith and credit.

50. The new Constitution clearly established the federal government's right to tax in order to
A. avoid the financial problems of the Articles of Confederation.
B. diminish the powers of the state governments.
C. establish a unitary system of government.
D. maintain one of the strengths of the Articles of Confederation.

51. Suffrage rights are constitutionally determined by
A. the Tenth Amendment.
B. state governments.
C. the federal government.
D. Congress.

52. Among the concurrent powers of the U.S. system are
A. taxation.
B. coining money.
C. establish courts.
D. all of the above

53. Article I, section 8 gives Congress the power to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its enumerated powers. This clause is also known as the
A. enumerated powers clause.
B. reserve powers clause.
C. elastic clause.
D. full faith and credit clause.

54. The Constitution has a long list of federal powers, but few powers are listed for the states. This is because
A. the Framers thought the federal government was more important and should be more powerful.
B. states were designed to be subordinate to the federal government.
C. there was consensus on what the powers of the federal government should be, but not on the powers of the states.
D. states had all the power at the writing of the Constitution and a list was deemed unnecessary.

55. The Tenth Amendment provides for
A. states' reserve or police powers.
B. implied power.
C. concurrent powers.
D. all of the above.

56. In addition to granting certain powers to state and national government, Article I also denies some powers to those governments, for example,
A. bills of attainder.
B. entering into compacts with other states.
C. ex post facto laws.
D. all of the above.

57. A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial is called a(n)
A. bill of attainder.
B. ex post facto law.
C. habeas corpus act.
D. ex officio law.

58. The clause that ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another is called the __________ clause.
A. privileges and immunities
B. full faith and credit
C. bill of attainder
D. supremacy

59. The first major federalism decision by the Marshall Court was
A. Marbury v. Madison.
B. Gibbons v. Ogden.
C. McCulloch v. Maryland.
D. New York v. Hunter's Lessee.

60. In McCulloch v. Maryland (1816), the Supreme Court ruled that
A. Congress had the power to charter a bank due to the necessary and proper clause.
B. states had the power to tax creations of Congress due to concurrent powers.
C. the commerce clause allowed Congress to charter a bank.
D. the supremacy clause did not apply.

61. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) addressed the important question of
A. Congressional ability to charter a national bank.
B. the scope of Congressional authority under the commerce clause.
C. taxation powers.
D. the supremacy clause.

62. The doctrine, applied by the Taney Court, that the national government should not exceed its enumerated powers is called
A. full faith and credit doctrine.
B. doctrine of implied powers.
C. confederalism.
D. dual federalism.

63. During the Taney Court, the Court articulated the notion of
A. concurrent powers.
B. implied powers.
C. federal powers.
D. cooperative powers.

64. The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that
A. separate but equal was inherently unconstitutional.
B. the states had very limited police powers under the Tenth Amendment.
C. racial segregation was constitutional.
D. states could not protect the general welfare of their citizens.

65. The nature of federalism was changed forever by
A. Chief Justice Rutledge.
B. the Civil War.
C. Missouri v. Department of Interior.
D. Gibbons v. Ogden.

66. "Dual federalism" is the practice of

A. allowing state governments to compete aggressively with each other for federal funds.
B. allowing the states and the federal government to separately exercise power in areas of legitimate concern to them.
C. close cooperations between the states and the federal government.
D. continually increasing the power of the federal government.

67. In a confederal political system the central governing unit

A. has total power over state governments.
B. has total power over local governments.
C. has no ability to make laws directly applicable to individuals without the authority of state governments.
D. has the ability to revoke laws that are directly applicable to individuals without the approval of state governments.

68. The term ENUMERATED POWERS refers to:

A. those powers that a federal government has by definition of being a national government
B. the powers specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution.
C. powers granted to both the federal government and the state governments.
D. the power of the federal government to make laws to implement stated policies.

69. The term IMPLIED POWERS refers to:

A. those powers that a federal government has by definition of being a national government.
B. the powers specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution.
C. powers granted to both the federal government and the state governments.
D. the power of the federal government to make laws to implement stated policies.

70. The supremacy clause of the Constitution means

A. the original Constitution is superior to any amendment.
B. the original states have a superior status when dealing with states created after 1789.
C. states cannot use their reserved or concurrent powers to thwart national policies.
D. the Congress cannot pass legislation that would violate state laws or constitutions.

71. An example of an IMPLIED POWER is the federal government's right to:

A. tax citizens.
B. declare war.
C. forbid the exportation of U.S. weapons.
D. create a national bank.

72. States are obligated constitutionally by all but:

A. the interstate commerce clause.
B. the extradition clause.
C. the interstate privileges and immunities clause.
D. the full faith and credit clause.

73. Federal systems include:

A. U.S.A., Britain, and Canada
B. U.S.A., Britain, and Australia
C. U.S.A., Mexico, and Switzerland
D. a and b.

74. The goal of new federalism is to

A. reduce the restrictions attached to federal grants.
B. increase the restrictions attached to federal grants.
C. reduce the role of state governments concerning federal grants.
D. increase the role of the federal government concerning grants.

75. A major reason for the idea of full faith and credit clause is

A. to insure that rights established in contracts in one state will be honored by other states.
B. to insure that laws passed by Congress will be enforced with full faith by state governments.
C. to insure that goods produced in the United States will have priority over goods produced in another country.
D. to insure that goods produced in a state will have priority over goods produced in another state.

76. In the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court held

A. McCulloch had violated state law and must pay the tax with interest.
B. that only when acts of Congress are forbidden by the Constitution are they unconstitutional.
C. that the matter was not a federal question and should be decided in the state court system.
D. Maryland could only tax the value of the money at a rate that could not exceed 10% of the total assets of the Bank of the United States.

77. In the United States, citizens live under:

A. only the U.S. Constitution
B. only the constitution of the state in which they reside
C. no constitution
D. both the U.S. and a state constitution

78. The federalism of the Constitution

A. placed all power in a central government.
B. granted greater political power to the states than to the national government.
C. conferred more substantial powers on the national government, at the expense of state powers.
D. granted greater political power to local governments than to the states.

79. The federal government has compelled the states to raise their drinking age by

A. threatening to withhold highway funds.
B. invoking the federal government's police power.
C. creating a national drinking age through Congressional legislation.
D. invoking the supremacy clause.

80. The basic premise of federalism is that

A. two or more governments share power over the same land and people.
B. a national government has ultimate sovereignty over a country's land and people.
C. ultimate authority rests with the small political units closest to the people.
D. supreme political authority remains with the states.

81. The first president to reduce intergovernmental grant expenditures was
A. Jimmy Carter.
B. Ronald Reagan.
C. George Bush.
D. Bill Clinton.

82. The president who was elected to office, at least in part, due to a promise to return power to the states was
A. Richard Nixon.
B. Ronald Reagan.
C. Jimmy Carter.
D. George Bush.

83. The effect of Reagan's new federalism was
A. little change in federal relations.
B. tax reduction in the states.
C. a strengthening of state power.
D. state dependency on federal aid.

84. State and local governments often hire lobbyists today due to the
A. intense competition for federal funds.
B. strength of the intergovernmental lobby.
C. rapidly increasing range and scope of state powers.
D. all of the above.

85. The pressure group or groups that are created when state and local governments hire lobbyists to lobby the national government are called the __________ lobby.
A. governor's
B. intergovernmental
C. local
D. federal

86. In 1998, President Clinton issued an executive order on federalism that
A. usurped power from the states.
B. was favored by the intergovernmental lobby.
C. weakened the federal government.
D. caused a political firestorm.

87. Contrary to what Alexander Hamilton thought, many people today argue that the federal-state relationship has become one of
A. realignment.
B. state usurpation of powers.
C. coercion.
D. cooperation.

88. The method by which the federal government can override state or local actions is called
A. presumption.
B. regulatory federalism.
C. mandation.
D. preemption.

89. Republicans, in 1994, ran for election on a campaign pledge to force a national debate on the role of the national and state governments under the rubric of
A. the Contract with America.
B. cooperative federalism.
C. states' rights.
D. new federalism.

90. National laws that direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules and regulations are called
A. statutes.
B. decrees.
C. mandates.
D. dedicts.

91. Many states in the 1990s were unhappy with their position in the federal system due to
A. unfunded mandates.
B. taxation policies.
C. Republican control of many statehouses.
D. dual federalism.

92. Although education is usually considered a state function, the federal government became actively involved in ending state mandated segregation through the case of
A. Plessy v. Ferguson.
B. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas.
C. Casey v. Georgia.
D. Washington v. Mississippi.

93. During the 1960s, in an effort to end segregation, the federal government began encroaching on one of the most sacred areas of state regulation in the federal system,
A. the conduct of elections.
B. interstate commerce.
C. criminal law.
D. all of the above.

94. One of the rationales for federal intervention in state and local government affairs is the
A. judicial branch.
B. necessary and proper clause.
C. commerce clause.
D. Tenth Amendment.

95. New Jersey sued New York over the ownership of Ellis Island under the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

96. There are almost 90,000 state and local governments in the United States.

97. The challenge for the U.S. has always been to preserve the independence and rights of the states while establishing an effective national government.

98. The Framers divided the power between state and national government in order to create a confederal system.

99. The word "federal" is used in the Constitution to describe the system of divided powers.

100. The philosophy that describes the relationship between the state and national governments created by the Framers is called federalism.

101. The supremacy clause of the Constitution mandates that state laws supercede national laws.

102. The necessary and proper clause is the root of Congress' implied powers.

103. Implied powers are derived from constitutionally enumerated powers.

104. Suffrage rights are left to the states to decide in the U.S. Constitution.

105. The federal government's right to tax was left vague in the Constitution.

106. The Constitution specifically enumerates powers to the state and national governments.

107. Police powers are federal in nature according to the Tenth Amendment.

108. Taxation is a concurrent power in the U.S. federal system.

109. The Constitution guarantees that Congress would not limit the slave trade before 1808.

110. Throughout our history, the nature of federalism has been fairly constant.

111. Many people today are calling for a return of power to the states.

112. In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court ruled that the commerce clause could not be used to reduce state powers.

113. The Civil War and the Great Depression were two of the historical incidents that tended to consolidate national powers at the expense of state powers.

114. During the late 1880s and 1990s, the Supreme Court consistently ruled to enlarge the scope of federal powers.

115. The New Deal was a package of policies introduced by the Roosevelt administration to remedy the Great Depression through federal action.

116. The Supreme Court was generally supportive of FDR's attempts to deal with the Great Depression.

117. Federal grants have been used since the Civil War to allocate federal funds to the states.

118. Block grants are federal monies given to the states with few strings attached.

119. Preemption is one way for states to prevent federal usurpation of their power.

120. One of the original reasons for federal grants was to counteract the perceived overrepresentation of rural interests in state legislatures.

121. Despite several large grant programs and other national interventions, education is primarily a state responsibility.

122. In 1995, the Supreme Court reasserted state control over suffrage and elections in U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton.

Key to the questions:

1. C
2. A
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. D
7. B
8. D
9. A
10. B
11. C
12. D
13. A
14. C
15. B
16. D
17. A
18. C
19. D
20. B
21. C
22. C
23. B
24. B
25. D
26. C
27. B
28. D
29. D
30. D
31. C
32. B
33. D
34. C
35. E
36. B
37. D
38. C
39. B
40. C
41. A
42. E

43. C
44. D
45. A
46. C
47. D
48. D
49. B
50. A
51. B
52. A
53. C
54. D
55. A
56. D
57. A
58. B
59. C
60. A
61. B
62. D
63. A
64. C
65. B
66. B
67. C
68. B
69. D
70. C
71. D
72. A
73. C
74. A
75. A
76. B
77. D
78. C
79. A
80. A

81. A
82. B
83. D
84. A
85. B
86. D
87. C
88. D
89. A
90. C
91. A
92. B
93. A
94. C
95. True
96. True
97. True
98. False
99. False
100. True
101. False
102. True
103. True
104. True
105. False
106. False
107. False
108. True
109. True
110. False
111. True
112. False
113. True
114. False
115. True
116. False
117. True
118. True
119. False
120. True
121. True
122. True

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