Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions

With the benefit of your textbook and the Internet recourses, study the following questions for the test.

1. A special law passed for the purpose of punishing a certain person without a trial is called:

A. Ex Post Facto Laws.   
B. Writ of Mandamus.
C. Sine Qua Non.
D. Quid Pro Quo.
E. None of the above.

2. According to the New Jersey Plan, how was representation structured in Congress?

A. there would be population-based representation in both houses.
B. There would be one house, with states having equal representation therein.
C. States were to have equal representation in one house and population-based representation in the other.
D. There would be only one house, with representation based on population.

3. The Constitution is divided among three branches of government because

A. the founding fathers wished to insure plenty of important positions for themselves.
B. separation of powers made tyranny difficult.
C. the founding fathers lacked the practical experience to see the awkwardness of the system they had created.
D. this is the most efficient way to organize government.

4. The Constitution created a two chamber legislature because

A. the framers admired the bi-cameral British system.
B. the two chambers were given very different and distinct powers.
C. it feared that just one chamber could not handle the volume of government business that was anticipated.
D. it allowed for compromise between those who believed all states should be equal and those who insisted that a state's representation should be based on population.

5. The system of checks and balances is illustrated by the power of the legislature to

A. issue injunctions.
B. grant pardons.
C. veto legislation.
D. impeach.

6. The system of government in which power is divided between the state and national governments is called

A. federalism.
B. unitarism.
C. pluralism.
D. functionalism.

7. Most proposals for legislation originate with the

A. House of Representatives.
B. Senate.
C. Congress.
D. president.

8. The principles of separation of powers and checks and balances originated with

A. Machiavelli.
B. Rousseau.
C. Montesquieu.
D. Voltaire.

9. The Legislative Branch is established in

A. Article I.
B. Article II.
C. Article III.
D. Article IV.

10. Another name for the elastic clause is

A. enumerated powers.
B. judicial review.
C. the commerce clause.
D. the necessary and proper clause.

11. Federal judges are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate for a term of

A. eight years.
B. four years.
C. two years.
D. life.

12. The authority of a court to review the acts of the legislature, executive, or the states to determine their constitutionality is called

A. separation of powers.
B. judicial interpretation.
C. judicial review.
D. judicial independence.

13. The full faith and credit clause can be found in

A. Article IV.
B. Article VII.
C. the Bill of Rights.
D. the Preamble.

14. The first capital of the United States was

A. Philadelphia.
B. New York City.
C. Boston.
D. Washington, DC.

15. Article VI is also known as the

A. Commerce Clause.
B. Supremacy Clause.
C. Elastic Clause.
D. Equal Faith and Credit Clause.

16. Once the Constitutional Convention was completed, the drive for ratification in the states began. Those who favored ratification were known as

A. Democrats.
B. Republicans.
C. Anti-Federalists.
D. Federalists.

17. Once the Constitutional Convention was completed, the drive for ratification in the states began. Those who favored strong states and a weak national government, and thus opposed ratification, were called

A. Democrats.
B. Republicans.
C. Anti-Federalists.
D. Federalists.

18. A series of 85 political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification were called the

A. Pennsylvania Packet.
B. Federalist Papers.
C. Anti-Federalist Papers.
D. Ratification Debates.

19. The Anti-Federalists demanded a series of amendments to the Constitution to protect individual liberties. They were adopted in 1791 and are known as

A. libertarian amendments.
B. Anti-Federalist amendments.
C. the Bill of Rights.
D. checks and balances.

20. The Madison Amendment that prohibits Congress from raising their own salaries during the term of Congress was passed many years after it was proposed. It is also known as the __________ Amendment.

A. 10th
B. 17th
C. 21st
D. 27th

21. Among the provisions of the Articles of Confederation were all of the following EXCEPT:

A. states had all powers not actually granted to Congress.
B. creation of a judicial, but not an executive branch.
C. each state had one vote in Congress
D. Congress could not levy taxes.

22. The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in 1787 for the purpose of:

A. electing a president of the U.S.
B. framing the Bill of Rights
C. replacing the Articles of Confederation.
D. revising the Articles of Confederation.
E. discussing the subject of slavery.

23. The New Jersey Plan proposed at the 1787 Constitutional Convention:

A. was accepted by the Convention as the basis for the U.S. Constitution.
B. proposed a weak national government.
C. proposed to protect rights of smaller states.
D. proposed that Congress be made up of two houses.

24. An amendment to the Constitution can be proposed by the:

A. President                
B. Supreme Court       
C. Congress
D. electorate
E. none of the above.

25. To be ratified, a proposed amendment to the Constitution must be approved by:

A. two-thirds of each house of Congress.
B. three-quarters of the state legislatures.
C. a majority of the electorate.
D. three-fourths of the electorate in all states.

26. The net result of the Great Compromise was the:

A. balancing of the interest of the central government with state interests.
B. reconciliation of large and small state interests.
C. settling of the colonists' financial obligations to England.
D. settlement of the slavery issue among the colonies.

27. Our founding fathers were influenced by:

A. John Locke's machine theory of government.
B. Karl Marx' "Das Kapital".
C. Margaret Mitchell's "Gone With The Wind".
D. Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan"
E. The Bible.

28. The Declaration of Independence set forth the American Creed which stressed

A. the rights of the people             C. limited government.
B. equality under the law.              D. all of the above.

29. Who is frequently called "the father of the Constitution"?

A. Alexander Hamilton                  C. James Madison
B. Benjamin Franklin                     D. John Adams

30. Article II of the Constitution is concerned with

A. Congress.                                      C. the judiciary.
B. the executive.                                 D. the states.

31. Section 13 of the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789:

A. Authorizes the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus.
B. Authorizes the Supreme Court to question a writ of mandamus.
C. Declares James Madison as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia.
D. Declares Congressional acts invalid.
E. Declares Congressional acts valid.

32. Article III of the Constitution is concerned with

A. the judiciary.                              C. Congress.
B. the states.                                  D. the executive.

33. Opponents of the Constitution demanded inclusion of the Bill of Rights because they feared abuse of power by

A. the national government.         C. local governments using the police power.
B. state governments.                   D. government at all levels.

34. The Virginia Plan called for

a. a single-house legislature to be chosen by popular vote
b. a national excutive to be elected by the legislature
c. a national judiciary to be chosen by the executive
d. counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for purposes of representation in the House
e. all of the above

35. In the historic case of Marbury v. Madison (1803), the United States Supreme Court

a. mandated the Congress pass a Bill of Rights
b. declared that the slave trade was legal until 1808
c. established its power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
d. interpreted the "elastic clause"
e. held that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional

36. In his historic decision in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Chief Justice Marshall established the principle of

a. shared powers
b. due process
c. flexible construction of the Constitution
d. judicial review
e. legislative veto

37. The Fourteenth Amendment

a. gave citizenship to former slaves
b. contains the due process clause
c. contains the equal protection clause
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

38. Passed in 1992, the Twenty-seventh Amendment

a. balanced the federal budget
b. specifies that any vote by Congress to increase congressional salaries cannot take effect until after the next Congress is elected
c. limited the terms of senators and representatives to twelve years
d. prohibited flag desecration
e. lowered the voting age to the age of eighteen


39. Eighteen to twenty-one year olds received the right to vote in the

A. Constitution
B. Bill of Rights.
C. Twenty-Sixth Amendment.
D. states.

40. Colonists came to the New World for a variety of reasons including

A. religious freedom.
B. plentiful land.
C. a new start in life.
D. all of the above.

41. In 1765, the American colonists initiated a major protest against the

A. Treaty of Paris.
B. Stamp Act.
C. Sugar Act.
D. Tea Import Act.

42. Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams were among the leaders of the

A. Sons of Liberty.
B. Stamp Act Congress.
C. Philadelphia Parliament.
D. Continental Congress.

43. The first official meeting among the 13 colonies was the

A. Continental Congress.
B. Treaty of Paris
C. Representative Assembly.
D. Stamp Act Congress.

44. In order to facilitate communication and the flow of information among independence minded colonists, they formed

A. the Sons of Liberty.
B. Committees of Correspondence.
C. a Continental Congress.
D. the Stamp Act Congress.

45. The First Continental Congress was called in opposition to the

A. French and Indian War.
B. Coercive Acts.
C. taxes laid in the Stamp Act.
D. all of the above

46. At the First Continental Congress, there were delegates from

A. every colony except Georgia.
B. every colony except Rhode Island.
C. all 13 colonies.
D. all the colonies and a representative of the British King.

47. Fighting in the American Revolution broke out in the battle at

A. Saratoga, New York.
B. Trenton, New Jersey.
C. Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.
D. Yorktown, Virginia.

48. In 1776, Thomas Paine issued a pamphlet arguing for colonial independence from Britain, titled

A. The Plain Truth.
B. The Crisis.
C. Tis Time to Part.
D. Common Sense.

49. The Declaration of Independence was drafted by

A. James Madison.
B. Thomas Jefferson.
C. George Washington.
D. John Locke.

50. In 1781, the 13 colonies adopted the __________ as the basis of their government.

A. Constitution
B. Federation Treaty
C. Articles of Confederation
D. Declaration of Independence

51. A type of government in which the national government is weaker than the sum of its parts is called

A. confederacy.
B. federalism.
C. a unitary system.
D. pluralism.

52. The Articles of Confederation were also called

A. the Declaration of Independence.
B. the Constitution.
C. the Continental Confederation Agreement.
D. a loose league of friendship.

53. Under the political system established in 1781, the national government

A. could not reach a quorum of nine states on a regular basis.
B. did not have the power to tax.
C. was not allowed to regulate commerce among the states.
D. all of the above

54. Under the Articles of Confederation, the executive branch was

A. relatively weak.
B. virtually nonexistent.
C. quite strong.
D. responsible for executing all laws.

55. The 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1500 disgruntled farmers marched on Springfield, Massachusetts to prevent foreclosure on their farms was called

A. Shays's Rebellion.
B. the Farm Revolt.
C. Bacon's Rebellion.
D. Gabriel's Rebellion.

56. The Virginia Plan called for a national system with

A. strong state governments and a slightly stronger central government.
B. a single legislature with representation by population.
C. a strong central government and a bicameral legislature.
D. equality among the states.

57. The smaller states presented a plan at the Constitutional Convention advocating the strengthening of the Articles of Confederation. The plan was presented by

A. Rhode Island.
B. New Jersey.
C. Connecticut.
D. Virginia.

58. The most serious disagreement in the debate between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention was the issue of

A. representation in Congress.
B. judicial power.
C. slavery.
D. taxation.

59. A committee was appointed at the Constitutional Convention to work out the differences between the proposals of large and small states; the result was the

A. Virginia Plan.
B. New Jersey Plan.
C. Great Compromise.
D. Congressional Compromise.

60. The Committee on Unfinished Portions was tasked with ironing out problems concerning

A. judicial powers.
B. slavery and issues of the slave trade.
C. procedures for the election of the legislature.
D. the executive branch.

61. The electoral college system for electing the president was designed to give

A. the federal government the preeminent role.
B. the states a key role.
C. average voters the decisive power in choosing the president.
D. larger states an advantage in selecting the president.

62. The sole responsibility of investigating and charging a president or vice president with "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors" falls to the

A. House of Representatives.
B. Senate.
C. Supreme Court.
D. Federal Court system.

63. The last section of the Constitution to be drafted was

A. Article I.
B. Article II.
C. Article III.
D. the Preamble.

64. The division of powers among the three branches of government is called

A. federalism.
B. pluralism.
C. separation of powers.
D. functionalism.

65. A governmental structure that gives each of the three branches some degree of oversight and control of each other is called

A. federalism.
B. checks and balances.
C. command and control.
D. oversight powers.

66. What was the last state (original colonies) to ratify the Constitution?

A. Virginia
B. New York
C. Delaware
D. Rhode Island
E. Hawaii

67. How many amendments have been ratified by Constitutional Convention in three-fourths of the states?

A. Four
B. Ten
C. None
D. One

68. The most frequently used formal method of amending the Constitution is

A. proposal by two-thirds of the state legislatures, which petition Congress to call a constitutional convention, which in turn pass the proposal; ratification by a special ratifying convention in three-fourths of the states.
B. proposal by two-thirds of the state legislatures, petitioning Congress to call a constitutional convention, which in turn passes the proposal; ratification by three-fourths of the state legislatures.
C. proposal by a two-thirds vote of both congressional houses; ratification by a special convention in three-fourths of the states.
D. proposal by a two thirds vote of both houses of Congress; ratification by three-fourths of the state legislatures.

69. Generally speaking, which of the states were favored by the Virginia Plan?

A. Larger states
B. Those states with the strongest governors
C. Smaller states
D. All states would benefit equally

70. Which states were most likely to benefit from the New Jersey Plan?

A. Smaller states
B. All states would benefit equally
C. Larger states
D. Those states with the strongest governors

71. What is the major premise of the Declaration of Independence?

A. The people have a right to revolt if government is destroying legitimate rights.
B. The government should consist of legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
C. The national laws take precedence over state laws.
D. Government is best controlled by a system of checks and balances.

72. The Great Compromise provided for a

A. two-chamber legislature with equal representation for all states.
B. two-chamber legislature with representation equal for all states in one chamber, and according to population in the other.
C. two-chamber legislature with representation based on population.
D. one-chamber legislature with representation based on population.

73. Preceding the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 was the one held the previous year at

A. Mt. Vernon
B. Monticello
C. New York
D. Annapolis

74. Chief Justice Marshall saw Marbury vs. Madison as asking the following:

A. Does Marbury have a right to the commission?
B. Do the laws offer protection to Marbury?
C. Can this court issue an order requiring delivery of the commission to Marbury?
D. All of the above

75. A major function of a constitution is to :

A. limit corporate power
B. permit extensive governmental power
C. establish the organizational framework for governing institutions
D. prohibit socialism

76. Which one of the following statements is correct about the case of Marbury v. Madison?

A. John Marshall was appointed as a Chief Justice by the lame-duck Congress in 1801.
B. James Madison was a secretary of state to President John Adams.
C. William Marbury was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
D. Madison went to the Supreme Court for a Writ of Mandamus, a court order to compel Marbury to deliver the commission.
E. None of the above.

77. A government is legitimate when

a. citizens vote in a presidential elections.
b. citizens live in fear of its power, even if that power is seldom applied.
c. it has the raw power to command obedience.
d. it is based on a constitution.

78. The thesis that the founding fathers wrote the new Constitution primarily to protect their property rights was advanced by:

A. Charles Lindblom
B. Adam Smith
C. James Harrington
D. John Kenneth Galbraith
E. none of the above

79. Which of the following is not an example of checks and balances:

A. the presidential veto.
B. the congressional power to vote against presidential appointments.
C. Supreme Court invalidation of unconstitutional laws.
D. the right of the president to invalidate treaties made by the House of Representatives.
E. A and C.

80. In MARBURY V. MADISON, the Supreme Court decided that:

A. judicial commissions were a right, not a privilege.
B. Marshall should not have signed the commission.
C. Madison must deliver the commission
D. a provision of the 1801 Law was unconstitutional.
E. none of the above.

81. The amendment process for the Constitution is set out in Article V and sets up a(n)

A. two stage process of proposal and ratification.
B. fairly easy procedure for changing the document.
C. single stage process utilizing conventions or Congress.
D. process by which the states, Congress, the executive, and a majority of voters must agree on changes to the document.

82. Of the more than 10,000 amendments introduced in Congress, __________ have been sent to the states for debate and ratification.

A. 120
B. 94
C. 55
D. 33

83. The 18th Amendment was added to the Constitution in order to enable

A. Congress to implement a personal income tax.
B. the president to appoint a vice president with the advice and consent of the Senate.
C. equal voting rights for all citizens regardless of race, gender, or previous condition of servitude.
D. the enactment of Prohibition.

84. The only Amendment passed and ratified that repealed a prior amendment was the

A. 16th
B. 19th
C. 21st
D. 27th

85. The Framers intended to design a system that

A. recognized the importance of deliberation.
B. did not respond to the whims of the people.
C. would limit government tyranny.
D. all of the above.

86_a. The Constitution requires that which of the following "take care that the laws are faithfully executed"?
a. Congress
b. The Supreme Court
c. The president
d. Police Officers

86. In the early seventeenth century, almost all of the colonists believed that the British king ruled by divine right.

87. During the 1600s, English monarchs allowed the colonists significant liberties in terms of self-government, religious practices, and economic organization.

88. The British government and the colonists agreed that following the French and Indian War westward expansion and settlement should be curtailed.

89. The Sons of Liberty were organized to fight the French and Indian War.

90. Committees of Correspondence were established to communicate ideas among the colonies in 1772.

91. The First Continental Congress had representatives from all 13 colonies.

92. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense to argue for a break with the corrupt British monarchy and for American independence.

93. The Declaration of Independence proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Britain and was written by James Madison.

94. The Constitution was the first compact among the 13 colonies.

95. America chose to form a confederate government in part because it was almost the direct opposite of the unitary British system.

96. The Constitution was the first independent system of government established in North America.

97. The Articles of Confederation set up a system in which power was shared between the states and national government.

98. During the late 1700s, Americans had great loyalties to their states.

99. One of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation was the national government's inability to levy taxes.

100. Under the Articles of Confederation, a unanimous vote was needed for any amendments.

101. The Articles of Confederation were failing due to an inability to pay war debts, tax, and conduct general business.

102. Shay's Rebellion was the first battle in the Revolutionary War.

103. The 1787 Convention in Philadelphia was called for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.

104. The first plan presented at the Constitutional Convention was the New Jersey Plan.

105. The New Jersey Plan argued for the rights and privileges of the states with large populations.

106. The Great Compromise recommended a bicameral legislature in which all money bills would originate in a House of Representatives.

107. Separation of powers was designed to constrain the powers of government.

108. The Supremacy Clause is found in Article I, section 8.

109. Article II vests the executive power in a president.

110. The president has the power to resolve conflicts among or between the states.

111. The new Constitution would be considered ratified and legal upon the approval of nine out of thirteen states.

112. The Federalists tended to draw support from small farmers, shopkeepers, and laborers.

113. In Federalist #10, Madison argued that the greatest threat to individual liberty came from factions.

114. The Equal Rights Amendment passed Congress and was ratified in 1982.

115. The Constitution is only changed through formal amendments.

Key for the questions:

1. E
2. B
3. B
4. D
5. D

6. A
7. D
8. C
9. A
10. D
11. D
12. C
13. A
14. B
15. B
16. D
17. C
18. B
19. C
20. D
21. B
22. D
23. C
24. C
25. B
26. B
27. A
28. D
29. C
30. B
31. A
32. A
33. A
34. B
35. C
36. C
37. D
38. B

39. C
40. D
41. B
42. A
43. D
44. B
45. B
46. A
47. C
48. D
49. B
50. C
51. A
52. D
53. D
54. B
55. A
56. C
57. B
58. A
59. C
60. D
61. B
62. A
63. D
64. C
65. B
6. D
67. D
68. D
69. A
70. A
71. A
72. B
73. D
74. D
75. C
76. E
77. D
78. E
79. D
80. E
81. A
82. D
83. D
84. C
85. D
86_a. C
86. True
87. True
88. False
89. False
90. True
91. False
92. True
93. False
94. False
95. True
96. False
97. False
98. True
99. True
100. True
101. True
102. False
103. True
104. False
105. False
106. True
107. True
108. False
109. True
110. False
111. True
112. False
113. True
114. False
115. False